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This brief summarizes the signs and symptoms of depression, suicide risk, and anxiety disorders in adolescents, and suggests research questions that can help screen or monitor mental health issues. It also provides resources for out-of-school time program practitioners on these topics.
Many out-of-school time programs serving adolescents seek to reduce the occurrence of reproductive health problems, such as pregnancies and STIs, among program participants. This brief discusses adolescent reproductive health and provides program practitioners with questions that can be used to screen or monitor reproductive health among out-of-school time program participants.
Children and youth from high-conflict families and those who live in high-crime, low-resource neighborhoods may be even more likely to experience chronic and/or high levels of stress. To minimize the risk for negative health and behavioral development, it is important for families, schools, and program providers to be able to recognize and help children cope with stress. This brief can assist program providers seeking to reduce stress in children and youth.
It is not uncommon for adolescents to experiment with different substances such as alcohol or cigarettes, but this can lead to heavy and continued use, which is dangerous and may put their health at risk. This brief discusses the signs and symptoms of alcohol and drug use and provides recommendations to assess substance use among youth in OST programs.
Children in the United States tend to experience a decline in positive self-concept during their adolescent years. Having a negative self concept during adolescence has been associated with maladaptive behaviors and emotions. In contrast, having a positive self-concept has been linked to positive social and emotional development. This brief discusses child and adolescent self-concept and provides information for out-of-school time program practitioners on how to assess self-concept among program participants. The brief also suggests ways that program practitioners can foster positive self concept in adolescents.
Before the School Bell Rings: How a Before-School Physical Activity Programs Improves Executive Functions.
BOKS is a physical education program that operates for approximately 40 minutes before school begins for two to three mornings per week. This article describes a three year study that investigated how a before-school physical activity program like BOKS can support positive development and school-related outcomes. In particular, the study examined whether program participation was associated with “executive functions” such as working memory and the ability to shift between tasks.
The current research on the brain has expended in the past few years, and as our knowledge of the brain grows, so too does the opportunity to use this information to actively shape programs, practices, and policies that promote the well-being of children and youth. This brief provides a review of new brain research as it applies to those serving children and youth,
One important place where children with disabilities may be able to interact positively with other children is in afterschool programs. However, providers have no idea whether children’s afterschool experiences are positive or negative—not to mention what their parents, youth development staff, and program leaders might think about their experiences. This paper describes a survey instrument, the ODMI-IWD, that was used in five largescale afterschool providers in southern California. The results and recommendations can help afterschool providers determine the extent to which their organizations truly welcome children and youth with disabilities.
Self-esteem is notoriously difficult to articulate and measure. This article attempts to address these gaps by reviewing research about self-esteem and adolescent girls, presenting findings from a study exploring girls’ experiences in a sports-based youth development program, and attempting to engage practitioners and researchers in new conversations about self-esteem and how we assess it.
Growth in Motion. Supporting Young Women's Embodied Identity and Cognitive Development Through Dance After School.
This is a study of "embodied learning and development—growth in motion—" at two community-based dance studios serving children, youth, and adults. It highlights the perspectives of young women to reveal the unique multimodal nature of dance; Auditory, kinesthetic, spatial, musical, tactile, gestural, and linguistic learning, as well as attitudinal and cognitive benefits.
Healthy eating habits are critical to address the epidemic of childhood obesity and diabetes in U.S. children. OST can provide a space to teach and model healthy nutrition, and an essential first step in determining how to address this issue involves understanding the perspectives of individuals who manage key OST organizations. This study explored healthy eating concepts among OST program administrators, their perception of the importance of the childhood obesity epidemic in relation to their mission. It also explored perceived barriers to serving healthful foods and the potential utility of guidelines and other managerial supports in helping programs adopt healthy eating practices
Children and youth need physical activity, and as the school day is increasingly used for academics, the OST is a key space in which to promote these activities. Evidence supporting the effectiveness of afterschool programs in promoting physical activity is beginning to surface; however, findings are mixed due to the methodological weaknesses in many studies. This review of studies of physical activity in afterschool programs found that current research lacks a detailed description of the intervention. For example, the content of staff training, the environment, and the activities offered.
This research brief discusses aspects of healthy diets for children in elementary and middle school. It summarizes the current guidelines and recommendations for child nutrition and provides information for schools and out-of-school time programs about how to measure child nutrition.
This article explains the link between childhood hunger and obesity, describes the importance of high quality nutrition education, highlights evidence of success from the Healthy Out-of-School Time Initiative, and discusses ways to engage youth in implementing the HEPA standards.
A study of 421 New Jersey OST providers found that professional development and experience were correlated with positive experiences with inclusion, whereas education, position, size of program, or the type of agency were not. This finding and other interesting correlations lead the authors to recommend that individuals and groups supporting OST programs provide professional development to help staff work with children with special needs.
This brief discusses diet, exercise, body image, and weight and also provides information for practitioners on how to measure these factors among youth in their programs.